In US higher education “term” can mean a range of things. Probably most familiar are semester terms. These traditionally included autumn/fall (from August or September to December, usually) and spring (from January to May often). Most universities also offer a summer semester. (Yes, it’s ironic: the word semester implies two terms, but there are three!)
Another common term colleges can use is the quarter system or calendar. Typically this means there is one fall/autumn quarter (September-December or so), then two in the spring/early summer. Again, colleges will generally have a summer quarter also.
Increasingly, US colleges offer online classes with shorter terms. These may be 5-8 weeks. Typically there are two per semester. Students often take only one or two classes per term, which lets them focus more on each class.
Finally, some US colleges are “non-term” colleges. These can have many different start dates for courses, giving students flexibility to start classes at times more convenient for their lives.